You can now read the whole book, for free, below. I realize that the formatting isn’t perfect (I will work on that), but the entire book is here.
For just one example of this, see “WikiAnswers What are the names of three witches burned at stake?” (WikiAnswers), http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_th_names_of_three_witches_burned_at_s take (accessed January 10, 2009.) This question is in the “Colonial America” section of this website. On WikiAnswers people submit questions which are answered. The person who responded to this question disabused the writer to the notion that convicted witches were burned in New England and provided other information as well. A simple web search would find others asking similar questions and receiving similar responses.
 See Bernard Rosenthal, Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 209-210. Rosenthal addresses the never ending statements that the convicted witches were burned at Salem and speculates as to some reasons why he believes that this idea persists.
 Burning convicted witches was mainly done in Continental Europe and Scotland. In England and the parts of America settled by England the convicted witches were hanged. See Margaret Alice Murray, The Witch-cult in Western Europe: A Study in Anthropology (New York: Oxford at Clarendon Press, 1921), available at http://books.google.com, 20.
 At least one scholar made essentially the same argument when he discussed the possibility that an invisible Sarah Good was tormenting children after her arrest, but “did not have the sense to get out of town . . .” He took this as evidence that she was not a witch. See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 17.
 See Cotton Mather, The Wonders of the Invisible World (London: John Russell Smith, 1862), available at http://books.google.com, 48. Mather wrote “The Devil, in the prosecution, and the execution of his wrath upon them, often gets a Liberty to make a Descent upon the Children of men. When the Devil does hurt unto us, he comes down unto us; for the Rendezvouze of the Infernal Troops, is indeed in the supernal parts of our Air. But as ’tis said, A sparrow of the Air does not fall down without the will of God ; so I may say, Not a Devil in the Air, can come down without the leave of God. Of this we have a famous Instance in that Arabian Prince, of whom the Devil was not able so much as to Touch any thing, till the most high God gave him a permission, to go down. The Devil stands with all the Instruments of death, aiming at us, and begging of the Lord, as that King ask’d for the Hood-wink’d Syrians of old, Shall I smite ’em, shall I smite ’em ? He cannot strike a blow, till the Lord say, Go down and smite, but sometimes he does obtain from the high possessor of Heaven and Earth, a License for the doing of it. The Devil sometimes does make most rueful Havock among us; but still we may say to him, as our Lord said unto a great Servant of his, Thou couldest have no power against me, except it were given thee from above. The Devil is called in 1 Pc<. 5. 8. Your Adversary. This is a Law-term; and it notes An Adversary at Law. The Devil cannot come at us, except in some sence according to Law ; but sometimes he does procure sad things to be inflicted, according to the Law of the eternal King upon us.”
 Many of the court documents reflect the belief that the witch was in the service of the Devil and could inflict harm on the witch if he/she didn’t do his bidding. The most obvious example of this may be found in the examination of Tituba, the Indian slave. See Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers: Verbatim Transcripts of Legal Documents of the Salem Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692 (New York: Da Capo Press, 1977), http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/texts/transcripts.html.
 Wikipedia contributors, “People of the Salem Witch Trials,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=People_of_the_Salem_Witch_Trials&oldid=262821376 (accessed January 10, 2009). Notes that Mary (Perkins) Bradbury escaped after being convicted and that John Alden, Edward Bishop Jr., Sarah (Wilds) Bishop, William Barker Sr., Edward Farrington, Elizabeth (Walker) Cary, Phillip English, and Mary (Hollingsworth) English escaped before they were tried. Either the Salem jail was not the most secure place in the world, or these people were allowed by the Devil to use their witchcraft to escape.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 193. “Clerical opposition, however, was not sufficient in a colony that existed as a theocracy only in future mythologies.”
 Charging persons with having a literal pact with Satan seemed more common with the supposed Andover witches. No person charged with witchcraft was charged with only having a pact with Satan. Harm to others was always alleged.
 See Chadwick Hansen, Witchcraft at Salem (New York: George Braziller, 1992), 12. Hansen wrote “Witches were burned on the Continent and in Scotland, where witchcraft was a heresy, but hanged in England and New England where it was a felony.”
 Ibid. “Burning seems not to have been motivated by a wish to inflict a particularly painful death; Scottish witches, for instance, were first garroted by the executioner, who then proceeded to burn the corpse and scatter its ashes. Most probably, burning was an attempt to prevent the resurrection of the body.” Likely he means at the General Resurrection. Although the English and New English likely had no fear of the witches coming back to life during this life. They also did not feel the need to judge the soul of the witch. Perhaps the witch could repent, even while on the gallows, and thus it would not be right to try to deny such a person participation in the General Resurrection. From Cotton Mather’s attempt to convert the Irish witch, Goody Glover, it is clear that the Puritans, at least, believed in redemption even for witches.
 See Johann Jakob Herzok and Philip Schaff, et al., The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1912), available at http://books.google.com, 392. “Between 1646 and 1688 twelve persons were executed for this offense in New England (W. F. Poole, in J. Winsor’s Memorial Hist, of Boston, ii. 133, Boston, 1881), and this is only a small proportion of prosecutions some of which resulted in acquittal . . .”
 Eva Laplante, Salem Witch Judge: The Life and Repentance of Samuel Sewall (New York: Harper Collins, 2007), 173.
 “Adherents.com: National & World Religion Statistics – Church Statistics – World Religions” http://www.adherents.com/.
 There is not a specific citation that can be given, but the reader can take note of the fact that Christianity and Islam, two major religions, generally teach that such a creature exists.
 Many modern witches or people who practice Wicca would dispute this. But it is the traditional and Christian interpretation.
 I came up with this view independently of anyone else, but I was not the first to express it. See Barrett Wendell, Stelligeri, and Other Essays Concerning America (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1893), 136 – 137 in the essay “Were the Salem Witches Guiltless”, available at http://books.google.com. “[I]t would not have been strange if now and then wretched men, finding in their endless introspection no sign of the divine marks of grace, and stimulated in their mysticism beyond modern conception by the churches that claimed and imposed an authority almost unsurpassed in history, had been tempted to seek, in premature alliance with the powers of evil, at least some semblance of the freedom that their inexorable God had denied them.”
 Exod. 34:11 “Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.”, Deut. 7:2 “And when the LORD thy God shall deliver them before thee; thou shalt smite them, and utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor shew mercy unto them:”, Deut 20:16-17 “But of the cities of these people, which the LORD thy God doth give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth: But thou shalt utterly destroy them; namely, the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee:”, Josh. 6:21 “And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword.”, Num 31:1-18 “And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites: afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people. And Moses spake unto the people, saying, Arm some of yourselves unto the war, and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge the LORD of Midian. Of every tribe a thousand, throughout all the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the war. So there were delivered out of the thousands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war. And Moses sent them to the war, a thousand of every tribe, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the holy instruments, and the trumpets to blow in his hand. And they warred against the Midianites, as the LORD commanded Moses; and they slew all the males. And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were slain; namely, Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings of Midian: Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword. And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives, and their little ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods. And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, and all their goodly castles, with fire. And they took all the spoil, and all the prey, both of men and of beasts. And they brought the captives, and the prey, and the spoil, unto Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by Jordan near Jericho. And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp. And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle. And Moses said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of the LORD. Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him. But all the women children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves.” I could go on with more.
 John 3:36 “He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.” This, of course, need not be taken literally. Christ’s message could have a deeper meaning that has been missed by many Christians.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers. Tituba claimed in the first examination that she was threated by the other witches to harm the children: “no there is 4 women and one man they hurt the children and then lay all upon me and they tell me if I will not hurt the children they will hurt me.” She also claimed that she was threatened with harm if she did not serve a black dog, who likely was Satan: “the black dog said serve me but I said I am a fraid he said if I did not he would doe worse to me.”
 Ibid. A few examples: From the examination of William Barker, Sr. lliam BedThat the devil demanded of him to give up himself soul & Body unto him, which he promesed todoe. He said he had a great family, the world went hard with him and was willing to pay every man his own, And the devil told him he would pay all his debts and he should live comfortably”. From the examination of Mary Bridges, Jr. “s’d a yellow bird appeared to her: out of dores: & bid her serve him: he promised me mony s’d she and fine Cloathes & I promised to serve him.” And the examination of Abigail Hobbs, April 19, 1692, “They would give me fine clothes.” This was also in return for service to Satan. Interesting, Bridges, Hobbs and others were not required to serve Satan for life, but only for a period of time, two years in their cases. Sadly, it is often alleged that the Devil did not follow through on his promises.
 See Wikipedia contributors, “A Man for All Seasons (1966 film),” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A_Man_for_All_Seasons_(1966_film)&oldid=263013446 (accessed January 17, 2009). “Why Richard, it profits a man nothing to lose his soul for the whole world… but for Wales?” Although it is a work of fiction, it is a fitting example.
 Cotton Mather, The Wonders of the Invisible World, 44.
 This is not a statement that can be proved. Traditionally prostitution has been seen as the oldest profession, with others battling it out for second place. Witchcraft goes back to Antiquity, at least.
 See Howard Williams, The Superstitions of Witchcraft (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, 1865), available at http://books.google.com, 10. “The origin of witchcraft and the vulgar diabolism is to be found in the rude beginnings of the religious or superstitious feeling which, known amongst the present savage nations as Fetishism, probably prevailed almost universally in the earliest ages; while that of the sublimer magic is discovered in the religious systems of the ancient Chaldeans and Persians. Chaldea and Egypt were the first, as far as is known, to cultivate the science of magic: the former people long gave the well-known name to the professional practisers of the art. Cicero (de Divinations) celebrates, and the Jewish prophets frequently deride, their skill in divination and their modes of incantation.”
 For example, witchcraft exists in Islam. As recen tly as 2008, a woman was sentenced to death in Saudi Arabia for practicing witchcraft. Fawza Falih was accused, among other things, of bewitching a man and making him impotent. Appeals have been made by at least one human rights organization on her behalf. It is unclear if she has been executed as of this date. See Heba Saleh, “Pleas for condemned Saudi ‘witch’” BBC News, February 14, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7244579.stm.
 See Howard Williams, The Superstitions, 52.
 Jan Irvin, “Shamanism: The Oldest Religion in the World. The Religion of Experience,” Gnostic Media, http://www.gnosticmedia.com/shamanism.html. See also the various writings of Terrance McKenna on this topic.
 Wikipedia contributors, “Shamanism,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shamanism&oldid=264599288 (accessed January 17, 2009).
 See King Hammurabi of Babylon, Code of Laws, trans. C.H.W. Johns, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1903), available at Gutenberg Press http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17150/17150.txt . “If a man weave a spell and put a ban upon a man, and has not justified himself, he that wove the spell upon him shall be put to death.”
 Howard Williams, The Superstions, 23.
 Ibid, 19-31. Constantine, the first Christian emperor of Rome, unheld the previous prohibitions on using magic to harm others. The distinction between the use of magic to help versus the use of it to harm was later ignored by Christians.
 See Ibid, 31- 33. “Not many years after the death of Julian the Christian Empire witnessed a persecution for witchcraft that for its ferocity, if not for its folly, can be paralleled only by similar scenes in the fifteenth or seventeenth century. It began shortly after the final division of the East and West in the reigns of Valentinian and Valens, A.d. 373. The unfortunate accused were pursued with equal fury in the Eastern and Western Empires; and Rome and Antioch were the principal arenas on which the bloody tragedy was consummated. Gibbon informs us that it was occasioned by a criminal consultation, when the twenty- four letters of the alphabet were ranged round a magic tripod; a dancing ring placed in the centre pointed to the first four letters in the name of the future prince. ‘ The deadly and incoherent mixture of treason and magic, of poison and adultery, afforded infinite gradations of guilt and innocence, of excuse and aggravation, which in these proceedings appear to have been confounded by the angry or corrupt passions of the judges. They easily discovered that the degree of their industry and discernment was estimated by the imperial court according to the number of executions that were furnished from their respective tribunals. It was not without extreme reluctance that they pronounced a sentence of acquittal ; but they eagerly admitted such evidence as was stained with perjury or procured by torture to prove the most improbable charges against the most respectable characters. The progress of the inquiry continually opened new subjects of criminal prosecution; the audacious informers whose falsehood was detected retired with impunity: but the wretched victim who discovered his real or pretended accomplices was seldom permitted to receive the price of his infamy. From the extremity of Italy and Asia the young and the aged were dragged in chains to the tribunals of Rome and Antioch. Senators, matrons, and philosophers expired in ignominious and cruel tortures. The soldiers who were appointed to guard the prisons declared, with a murmur of pity and indignation, that their numbers were insufficient to oppose the flight or resistance of the multitude of captives. The wealthiest families were ruined by fines and confiscations; the most innocent citizens trembled for their safety: and we may form some notion of the magnitude of the evil from the extravagant assertion of an ancient writer [Ammianus Marcellinus], that in the obnoxious provinces the prisoners, the exiles, and the fugitives formed the greatest part of the inhabitants.”
 See 26 in this section. Also see “Witchcraft torture three jailed” BBC News, July 8, 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/4663719.stm. A trial in England of Africa immigrants found that a child had been tortured by her aunt and associates because they believed the eight year old was practicing witchcraft. Also see B.A. Robinson, “Witchcraft in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa” Religious Tolerance, July 27, 2007, http://www.religioustolerance.org/wic_afri.htm.
 As we shall see, this was the general consensus of most in New England just after the trials ended, so it would seem hard to argue with that statement.
 Elaine G. Breslaw, Tituba Reluctant Witch of Salem, Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies (New York and London: New York University Press, 1996), 91.
 Ibid. This page generally addresses the issue of some people being experts in white magic, calling them “cunning folk”.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 96.
 Ibid, 15. “These our poor Afflicted Neighbours, quickly after they become Infected and Infested with these Dcemons, arrive to a Capacity of Discerning those which they conceive the Shapes of their Troublers; and notwithstanding the Great and Just Suspicion, that the Dcemons might Impose the Shapes of Innocent Persons in their Spectral Exhibitions upon the Sufferers, (which may perhaps prove no small part of the Witch-Plot in the issue) yet many of the Persons thus Represented, being Examined, several of them have been Convicted of a very Damnable Witchcraft: yea, more than One Twenty have Confessed, that they have Signed unto a Book, which the Devil show’d them, and Engaged hi his Hellish Design of Bewitching, and Ruining our Land. We know not, at least / know not, how far the Delusions of Satan may be Interwoven into some Circumstances of the Confessions;”
 Hansen, Witchcraft, x. “ . . . [W]itchcraft actually did exist and was widely practiced in seventeenth-century New England . . . . It worked then as it works now in witchcraft societies like those of the West Indies, through psychogenic rather than occult means, commonly producing hysterical symptoms as a result of the victim’s fear, and sometimes, when fear was succeeded by a profound sense of hopelessness, even producing death.”
 Ibid, 70 -71, 86.
 Ibid, 86.
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers. “Candy Negro: for bewitching Mary Wallcott Billa Vera,*Robert Payne foreman. Ponet Se. The juery find the person hereinditted not gilty of this indittement.” and “Candy Negro: for bewitching Ann Putnum Billa Vera, *Robert Payne foreman Ponet Se. The juery find the person here inditted not gilty of this indittement”.
 Douglas O. Linder, “Chronology of Events Relating to the Salem Witchcraft Trials”, Famous American Trials Salem Witchcraft Trials 1692 from University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASAL_CH.HTM (accessed January 19, 2009).
 Linder, “Chronology”, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASAL_CH.HTM.
 Wikipedia contributors, “Elizabeth Proctor,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elizabeth_Proctor&oldid=264158951 (accessed January 19, 2009).
 Linder, “Chronology”, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASAL_CH.HTM.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 156-158.
 Ibid. 158
 Ibid. 152.
 Max Blumenthal, “The Witch Hunter Anoints Sarah Palin,” The Nation, September 24, 2008, http://www.thenation.com/blogs/state_of_change/363724/the_witch_hunter_anoints_sarah_palin.
 See Wikipedia contributors, “Bob Larson,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bob_Larson&oldid=266152318 (accessed January 25, 2009). Larson is just one example of a person in the modern western world who believes that there is an active battle between good and evil, God and Satan, true religion and the occult. Although the people who typically follow Larson are in the minority, he does have followers and his views extend beyond his group and ones like it.
 This, of course, is complete bull shit. But I would submit to you that many feel that this is the case.
 Breslaw, Tituba, 76-77.
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers. In volume 3 under the warrant for Tituba and Sarah Osborne it reads in part “and titibe an Indian Woman servant, of mr. Sam’l parris of s’d place also; for Suspition of Witchcraft . . .”
 For example, see Hamilton Wright Mabia, Noble Living and Grand Achievement: Giants of the Republic, Embracing the Lives, Deeds, and Personal Traits of Eminent Statesmen, Great Generals, Noted Reformers, Successful Men of Business, Distinguished Literary Men, and Famous Women (Philadelphia: Chicago: Syracuse: Toronto: J.C. Winston & co, 1896) available at http://books.google.com, 606. Mabia wrote “One curious outcome of slavery in Massachusetts was that from the gross superstition of a negro slave, Tituba, first sprang the hideous delusions of the Salem witchcraft trials.” This sentence, of course, could not be more inaccurate. The view that Tituba was only half African was more popular. For one example see George Bancroft, History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the Continent (D. Appelton and Company, 1888) available at http://books.google.com, 59. Bancroft wrote “ . . . Tituba, a half Indian, half negro female servant who had practiced some wild incantations, being betrayed by her husband, was scourged by Parris, her master, into confessing herself a witch.” This book will also address of the other inaccurate statements that were made in that sentence.
 Breslaw, Tituba, 11-13. Other sections of the book also address this question and make a strong argument that she was in fact an Indian and was not even partly African. She was not the first to make this argument. However, thanks to her research I think any sensible person would consider this a closed question.
 Ibid, 103.S
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3. Under “Summary of Examinations of Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborne” it is recorded “Sarah Good Sarah Osborne and Titiba an Indian Woman all of Salem Village Being this day brought before us upon Suspition of Witchcraft &c by them and Every one of them Committed. titiba an Indian Woman acknowledging the matter of fact.”
 See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 3. He makes a similar point about the initial accusations against Tituba, Good, and Osborne he wrote “[h]ad matters proceeded in traditional ways, judicial verdicts would have been rendered, guilty or innocent, and the episode would have ended.” Tituba, given her confession, would likely have been convicted. However, even that was not a guarantee as the Puritans accepted the notion that the Devil could delude a person into thinking that she was guilty even if she was not.
 Ibid. 31.
 See Cotton Mather, MEMORABLE PROVIDENCES, RELATING TO WITCHCRAFTS AND POSSESSIONS (Boston, 1689) available at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/asa_math.htm. The website contains an unfortunate quote that implies that Mather’s interest in witchcraft cases was related to his sexuality.
 Ibid. “Sect. III. About Midsummer, in the year 1688, the Eldest of these Children, who is a Daughter, saw cause to examine their Washerwoman, upon their missing of some Linnen ‘ which twas fear’d she had stollen from them; and of what use this linnen might bee to serve the Witchcraft intended, the Theef’s Tempter knows! This Laundress was the Daughter of an ignorant and a scandalous old Woman in the Neighbourhood;”
 Ibid. “Sect. IV. It was not long before one of her Sisters, an two of her Brothers, were seized, in.Order one after another with Affects’ like those that molested her. Within a fe weeks, they were all four tortured every where in a manner s very grievous, that it would have broke an heart of stone t have seen their Agonies. Skilful Physicians were consulted for their Help, and particularly our worthy and prudent Friend Dr. Thomas Oakes,’ who found himself so affrontcd by the Dist’empers of the children, that he concluded nothing but an hellish Witchcraft could be the Original of these Maladies.”
 Ibid. “Sect. VI. It was a Religious Family that these Afflictions happened unto; and none but a Religious Contrivance to obtain Releef, would have been welcome to them. Many superstitious proposals were made unto them, by persons that were I know not who, nor what, with Arguments fetch’t from I know not how much Necessity and Experience; but the distressed Parents rejected all such counsils, with a gracious Resolution, to oppose Devils with no other weapons but Prayers and Tears, unto Him that has the Chaining of them; and to try first whether Graces were not the best things to encounter Witchcrafts with.”
 Ibid. “Accordingly they requested the four Ministers of Boston, with the Minister of Chai-Istown, to keep a Day of Prayer at their thus haunted house; which they did in the Company of some devout people there. Immediately upon this Day, the youngest of the four children was delivered, and never felt any trouble as afore.”
 Ibid. “Sect. VII. The Report of the Calamities of the Family for which we were thus concerned arrived now unto the ears of the Magistrates, who presently and prudent y apply’d themselves, with a just vigour, to enquire into the story. The Father of the Children complained of his Neighbour, the suspected ill woman, whose name was Glover; and she being sent for by the Justices, gave such a wretched Account of her self, that they saw cause to commit her unto the Gaolers Custody. Goodwin had no proof that could have done her any Hurt; but the Hag had not power to deny her interest in the Enchantment of the Children; ”
 Ibid. “This Laundress was the Daughter of an ignorant and a scandalous old Woman in the Neighbourhood; whose miserable Husband before he died, had sometimes complained of her, that she was undoubtedly a Witch . . .”
 Ibid. “I suppose, used upon her, by one or some of her Cruel the Court could receive Answers from her in one but the Irish, which was her Native Language; altho she under-stood the English very well, and had accustomed her whole Family to none but that Language in her former Conversation;”
 Ibid. “[T]he Communication between the Bench and the Bar,’ was now cheefly convey’d by two honest and faithful men that were interpreters.”
 Ibid. “It was long before she could with any direct Answers plead unto her Indictment and; when she did plead, it was with Confession rather than Denial of her Guilt.”
 Ibid. “When these were produced, the vile Woman acknowledged, that her way to torment the Objects of her malice, was by wetting of her Finger with her Spittle, and streaking of those little Images.”
 Ibid. “However to make all clear, The Court appointed five or six Physicians one evening to examine her very strictly, whether she were not craz’d in her Intellectuals, and had not procured to her self by Folly and Madness the Reputation of a Witch. Diverse hours did they spend with her; and in all that while no Discourse came from her, but what was pertinent and agreeable: particularly, when they asked her, What she thought would become of her soul? she reply’d “You ask me, a very solemn Question, and I cannot well tell what to say to it.” She own’d her self a Roman Catholick; and could recite her Pater Noster in Latin very readily; but there was one Clause or two alwaies too hard for her, whereof she said, ” She could not repeat it, if she might have all the world.” In the up-shot, the Doctors returned her Compos Mentis; and Sentence of Death was pass’d upon her.”
 Robert Calef, a critic of the Mather’s, also wrote about this trial in 1700. See Robert Calef, More Wonders of the Invisible World: Or The Wonders of the Invisible World Displayed. In Five Parts (London, 1700 and Salem: John D. and T. C. Cushing, Jr. for Cushing and Appleton, 1823) available at http://books.google.com, 299. Calef wrote “In the times of sir Edmond Andres’s government, goody Glover, a despised, crazy, ill-conditioned old woman, an Irish Roman Catholic, was tried for afflicting Goodwin’s children; by the account of which trial, taken in short hand for the use of the jury, it may appear that the generality of her answers were nonsense, and her behaviour like that of one distracted. Yet the doctors, finding her as she had been for many years, brought her in compos mentis ; and setting aside her crazy answers to some ensnaring questions, the proof against her was wholly deficient. The jury brought her in guilty. Mr. Cotton Mather was the most active and forward of any minister in the country in those matters, taking home one of the children, and managing such intrigues with that child, and printing such an account of the whole in his Memorable Providences, as conduced much to the kindling of those flames, that in sir William’s time threatened the destruction of this country.” While Calef’s spin on these events has been accepted as fact by many, it must be remembered that he was already known as an infamous liar who had spread stories that wrongly suggested Cotton and Increase Mather sexually molested teenage girls. See Hansen, Witchcraft, 190-194.
 Cotton Mather, Memorable Providences. “Sect. X. While the miserable old Woman was under Condemnation, I did my self twice give a visit unto her. She never denyed the guilt of the Witchcraft charg’d upon her; but she confessed very little about the Circumstances of her Confederacies with the Devils; only, she said, That she us’d to be at meetings, which her Prince and Four more were present at. As for those Four, She told who they were; and for her Prince, her account plainly was, that he was the Devil. She entertained me with nothing but Irish ‘, which Language I had not Learning enough to understand without an Interpreter; only one time, when I was representing unto her That and How her Prince had cheated her, as her self would quickly find; she reply’d, I think in English, and with passion too, “If it be so, I am sorry for that!” I offer’d many Questions unto her, unto which, after long silence, she told me, She would fain give me a full Answer, but they would not give her leave. It was demanded, “They! Who is that They ? ” and she return’d, that They were her Spirits, or her Saints, (for they say, the same Word in Irish signifies both). And at another time, she included her two Mistresses, as she call’d them in that They, but when it was enquired, Who those two were, she fell into, a Rage, and would be no more urged. I Sett before her the Necessity and Equity of her breaking her Covenant with Hell, and giving her self to the Lord Jesus Christ, by an everlasting Covenant; To which her Answer was, that I spoke a very Reasonable thing, but she could not do it. I asked her whether she would consent or desire to be pray’d for; To that she said, If Prayer would do her any good, shee could pray for her self. And when it was again propounded, she said, She could not unless her spirits (or angels) would give her leave. However, against her will I pray’d with her, which if it were a Fault it was in excess of Pitty. When I had done, shee thank’d me with many good Words; but I was no sooner out of her sight, than she took a stone, a long and slender stone, and with her Finger and Spittle fell to tormenting it; though whom or what she meant, I had the mercy never to understand.”
 Ibid. “she said, the Children should not be relieved by her Death, for others had a hand in it as well as she; and she named one among the rest, whom it might have been thought Natural Affection would have advised the Concealing of.” Perhaps she named her daughter?
 For an example of this view see Increase Mather, Cases of Conscience concerning evil SPIRITS Personating Men,Witchcrafts, infallible Proofs of Guilt in such as are accused with that Crime. All Considered according to the Scriptures,History, Experience, and the Judgmentof may Learned men(Boston, 1693) available in Cotton Mather’s Wonders at http://books.google.com at page 266. “If the Testimony of a bewitched or possessed Person, is of validity as to what they see done to themselves, then it is so as to others, whom they see afflicted no less than themselves: But what they affirm concerning others, is not to be taken for Evidence. Whence had they this Supernatural Sight 1 It must needs be either from Heaven or from Hell: If from Heaven, (as Elidia’s Servant, and Halaam’s Ass could discern Angels) let their Testimony be received: But if they had this Knowledge from Hell, tho’ there may poasibly be truth in what they afiirin, they are not legal Witnesses: For the Law of God allows of no Revelation from any other Spirit but himself, Isa. 8. 19. It is a Sin against God to make use of the Devil’s help to know that which cannot be otherwise known;” Increase Mather was generally seen as more conservative in his opinions of the witchcraft trials and was troubled by the Salem trials. If Increase Mather’s views had been prevailed at Salem then the witchcraft trials would have been much more limited.
 Cotton Mather, Memorable Providences.
 Ibid. “[F]or we should be tender in such Relations lest we wrong the Reputation of the Innocent by stories not enough enquired into.”
 See Exod 22:18 “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.”
 King William’s War and especially King Philip’s War had been devastating to the population. See Wikipedia contributors, “King William’s War,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_William%27s_War&oldid=262940995 (accessed January 27, 2009). And see Wikipedia contributors, “King Philip’s War,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_Philip%27s_War&oldid=266038127 (accessed January 27, 2009). These Wikipedia Entries should provide additional resources for information on these conflicts.
 See Breslaw, Tituba, 95. “The Reverend Parris thus followed orthodox procedure when he initiated a series of prayers and made arrangements for a fast day for the community to repent of its collective sins. He knew of Cotton Mather’s widely publicized success in exorcising the devils in the four Goodwin children just a few years before and employed the same rituals of prayer, calls for repentance, and tender loving care of the victims. . . . Neither Parris’s prayers nor her mother’s and Tituba’s care and concern seemed to help.”
 Ibid. 89.
 See Wm. Thaddeus Harris, transc., Salem Village Church Record Book available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/villgchurchrcrd.html. “Nay it never broke forth to any considerable light, untill Diabolical means was used by the making of a Cake by my Indian man, who had his direction from this our sister Mary Sibly”. These remarks from Parris were given on March 27, 1692.
 See John Hale, A Modest Inquiry Into The Nature Of Witchcraft (1702) available at http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Bur6Nar.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=6&division=div1. “This the Neighbours quickly took up, and concluded they were bewitched. He had also an Indian Man servant, and his Wife who afterwards confessed, that without the knowledge of their Master or Mistress, they had taken some of the Afflicted persons Urine, and mixing it with meal had made a Cake, and baked it, to find out the Witch, as they said. After this, the Afflicted persons cryed out of the Indian Woman, named Tituba, that she did pinch, prick, and grievously torment them, and that they saw her here and there, where no body else could.”
 Breslaw, Tituba, 96-97. Indeed, if Tituba really was afflicting the children she most certainly would not have instigated the use of this magic. It seems more likely that as a slave she felt pressured to help by this neighbor.
 See note 102.
 Hale, A Modest Inquiry. “In a short time after other persons who were of age to be witnesses, were molested by Satan, and in their fits cryed out upon Tituba and Goody O. and S. G.389 that they or Specters in their Shapes did grievously torment them;” Also see the quote from Hale in note 103.
 Ibid. “[T]he effect of which examination was, that Tituba confessed she was a Witch, and that she with the two others accused did torment and bewitch the complainers,”
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2. Under Examinations of Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, it is recorded that Osborne “saith she had noe hand in hurting the children nether by hur self by in strements she saith that shee saith that [shee] was more lickley beewicht then a wichshee said shee would never beeleave the devell, the devell did propound to hur that shee should never goe to meting noe more and att that time nothing was suggested to hur elces Why did she pinch the young woaman shee never did nor dont know who did.”
 Ibid. “she saith itt was nott she itt is gamer osborne that doth pinch and aflicht the children.”
 Breslaw, Tituba, 183.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 30. Hansen quotes John Hale, but comments in his footnote that this was not published in a re-print of Hale’s work. This author is relying on Hansen’s source as he is unable to verify this on his own.
 Breslaw, Tituba, 93.
 See note 68 for example. Also see Breslaw, Tituba, 97. “It is unlikely that Tituba as an individual was actually known for her skill in white or black magic before 1692. There is no evidence (except in the imaginations of historians, playwrights, and novelists) that she was an active participant in occult rituals before that date.” Of course, her confession was evidence of some occult activities before 1692. But there is no evidence of her teaching fortune telling or anything else to anyone in Salem Village.
 See notes 38-42 for more information on English folk magic.
 For example see Witchcraft, African and European, http://khanya.wordpress.com/2008/04/06/witchcraft-african-and-european/. “Premodern European beliefs about witchcraft and premodern African ideas about witchcraft are in many respects very similar.”
 Although he was not a credible source, it is worth noting that Robert Calef alleged this. See Calef, More Wonders, 189. “The account she since gives of it is, that her master did beat her, and other ways abuse her, to make her confess and accuse (such as he called) her sister-witches”. There is nothing to contradict this claim. It will be accepted as true for the sake of this argument. If not true, then the argument presented is only stronger.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 31.
 For example, see Rowland Hussey Allen, The New-England Tragedies in Prose (Boston: Nichols and Noyes, 1869) available at http://books.google.com, 107.
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1. Under “Physical Examinations of George Burroughs and George Jacobs, Jr.” it is asserted that Jacobs may have had a witch’s mark. Under “Physical Examination of Bridget Bishop, Rebecca Nurse, Elizabeth Proctor, Alice Parker, Susannah Martin, and Sarah Good” it is noted that Bishop, Nurse, and Proctor had marks as well. The reliability of this test must be questioned as Burroughs and Good, who were almost certainly witches, did not have the mark, while Nurse and Proctor, who were almost certainly innocent, did.
 See note 117.
 Torture was used during the Salem witchcraft trials, but it was not widely or harshly used. This section of the book is meant to be a bit facetious, but with a serious point. It shows how distorted our reality was in the wake of 9/11. See Hansen, Witchcraft, 133-135 for a discussion of torture, how its use compared to the harsh tortures used in Europe, except England, and why torture cannot explain the events at Salem as most allegations and confessions were given freely.
 Calef, More Wonders, 214-216.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 133-135. On page 133, Hansen wrote “The issue of torture, which Procter raises, is one that needs to be considered here. Cotton Mather had declared against it in his letter to Richards, calling it ‘un-English,’ and it is true that neither English nor New English law sanctioned it. The latter expressly forbade it, except for extorting the names of accomplices from convicted criminals, and even in that case it forbade ‘such tortures as be barbarous and inhumane.’”
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2. Under Samuel Sibley v. John Proctor, Sibley states about Proctor’s treatment of his servant, Mary Warren, “ Proctor replyed he was going to fetch home his jade he left her there last night & had rather given 40d than let her come up sd Sibly askt why he talt so Proctor replyed if they were let alone so we should all be Devils & witches quickly they should rather be had to the Whipping post but he would fetch his jade Home & thresh the Devil out of her & more to the like purpose crying hang them, hang them. And also added that when she was first taken with fits he kept her close to the Wheel & threatened to thresh her, & then she had no-684-more fits till the next day he was gone forth, & then she must have her fits again firsooth &.”
 Breslaw, Tituba, 139.
 See Andrew Sullivan, “Bush’s torturers follow where the Nazis led,” The Sunday Times (London), Comment/Columnists, October 7, 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/andrew_sullivan/article2602564.ece. “Classic torture techniques, such as waterboarding, hypothermia, beatings, excruciating stress positions, days and days of sleep deprivation, and threats to family members (even the children of terror suspects), were approved by Bush and inflicted on an unknown number of terror suspects by American officials, CIA agents . . .” Also see American Civil Liberties Union, “ACLU and Human Rights First Sue Defense Secretary Rumsfeld Over U.S. Torture Policies,” Press Release, March 1, 2005, http://www.aclu.org/safefree/general/17594prs20050301.html. “Those techniques [personally approved by then Defense Secretary Rumsfeld] included the use of “stress positions,” 20-hour interrogations, the removal of clothing, the use of dogs, isolation, and sensory deprivation.” The Bush administration used stress techniques and threats to uncover terrorists while the authorities at Salem used similar techniques to uncover witches. Neither the Bush regime or the Massachusetts authorities intended to cause serious harm or to inflict extreme pain.
 See Associated Press, “Bush Defends Policy on Terror Detainees,” November 7, 2005, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,174764,00.html. President George W. Bush stated “We do not torture.”
 See United States Criminal Code TITLE 18 , PART I , CHAPTER 113C, at http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sup_01_18_10_I_20_113C.html. Under § 2340. Definitions: “As used in this chapter—(1) “torture” means an act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control;(2) “severe mental pain or suffering” means the prolonged mental harm caused by or resulting from—(A) the intentional infliction or threatened infliction of severe physical pain or suffering;(B) the administration or application, or threatened administration or application, of mind-altering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or the personality;(C) the threat of imminent death; or (D) the threat that another person will imminently be subjected to death, severe physical pain or suffering, or the administration or application of mind-altering substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or personality; and(3) “United States” means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the commonwealths, territories, and possessions of the United States.” Under § 2340A. Torture: “(a) Offense.— Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection, shall be punished by death or imprisoned for any term of years or for life.(b) Jurisdiction.— There is jurisdiction over the activity prohibited in subsection (a) if—(1) the alleged offender is a national of the United States; or(2) the alleged offender is present in the United States, irrespective of the nationality of the victim or alleged offender.(c) Conspiracy.— A person who conspires to commit an offense under this section shall be subject to the same penalties (other than the penalty of death) as the penalties prescribed for the offense, the commission of which was the object of the conspiracy.”
 Ibid. Although the Conspiracy charge would probably be more appropriate for persons who were not personally present when the torture was taking place. A conviction for conspiracy to torture alone could not carry the death penalty. But if the victim died it could carry life in prison.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 133-135.
 There is nothing in any document nor are there any claims that survive of witch dunking in the Salem episode. This does not stop people from suggesting that it happened. For example, one columnist writing about the Bush regime’s policy on torture wrote “Variations of water boarding have their patriotic histories too. In the Salem Witch trials, one technique was to put a suspected witch in the lake – if they floated, they were considered guilty. I can see why George would get behind this – its simple and the result is clear.” Christopher Wright, “Waterboarding’s Long History,” OpEdNews, December 20, 2007, http://www.opednews.com/articles/opedne_christop_071220_waterboarding_s_long.htmhttp://www.opednews.com/articles/opedne_christop_071220_waterboarding_s_long.htm.
Witch dunking likely occurred around the same time in Fairfield, in what is now Connecticut. The local ministers were asked their opinions. Apparently the water test was used and the ministers agreed that it was not only unreliable, but “unlawful and sinful.” No one was executed as a result of the 1692 trials in Fairfield. See as quoted in John Metcalf Taylor, The Witchcraft Delusion in Colonial Connecticut, 1647-1697, (New York: The Grafton Press, 1908) 75-78.
 Dunking was never a legal practice in New England. See Hansen, Witchcraft, 49. There appear to be two different forms of witch dunking. The first involves throwing the alleged witch into a body of water. If she floated she was a witch. If she sank she was innocent and the mob will rush to save her. Dunking could also be used as a torture method, attaching a person to a chair and submerging the person in water until she confessed. A person could be held under for long amounts of time in order to simulate drowning and to shock the body. This may drive a person to confess. There is no evidence to suggest that this extreme form of torture was used in New England. It is likely that even the most conservative Puritans would have disapproved of this torture.
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3. Both transcripts and most other relevant documents are located under “Case 13 Tituba”.
 Ibid. Under “Summary of Examinations of Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborne” It is recorded in part that “Salem Village March 1’st 1691 Titiba an Indian Woman brought before us by Const’ Jos Herrick of Salem upon Suspition of Witchcraft. . .”, “Salem March 2’d Sarah Osburne againe Examined and also titiba as will appear in their Examinations given in titiba againe acknowledged the fact. . .”, “Salem March 3’d Sarah Osburn and titiba Indian againe Examined”, “Salem March 5’th Sarah Good and titiba againe Examined. & in theire Examination titiba acknowledg the same she did formerly and accused the other two-aboves’d –titiba againe s’d the same.”
 The statements made about the examination of Tituba all come from the transcripts in The Salem Witchcraft Papers.
 Breslaw, Tituba, 35. “By 1679 the island began to undergo a change in its racial composition. The 21,725 Europeans counted that year were now outnumbered by 32,473 Aficans, almost all slaves. The number of Indians, who were probably all enslaved, is not known, but by the 1670s could never have been more than 0.2 percent of the total.”
 Graham Hancock is an excellent source of information for this controversial subject. For an easy introduction to this theory see Graham Hancock, “Shamanism Aliens & Ayahuasca” Coast to Coast radio interview, September 28, 2006 available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzKp2PeXeWI. At the end of Part I he addresses the difference between a shaman and a shaman who has “gone bad” and become a “sorcerer”.
 See Breslaw, Tituba, 46. “In the absence of Christian instruction or the forced conversions practiced by the Spanish, Barbados slaves followed the religious practices of their own cultures. . . . The African slaves were free to borrow ideas from each other, adapting old traditions to new conditions and possibly retaining elements common to all, while incorporating Amerindian beliefs and European rituals as desired.”
A big similarity is that both Africans and South Americans have been known to use psychedelic “drugs” in their religious ceremonies. A review of the writings of Terrance McKenna, Daniel Pinchbeck, or others associated with this topic would show similarities and some differences between these cultures and substances.
 See Linnda R. Caporael, “Ergotism: The Satan Loosed in Salem? Convulsive ergotism may have been a physiological basis for the Salem witchcraft crisis in 1692.” Science, Vol. 192, April 2, 1976, http://web.utk.edu/~kstclair/221/ergotism.html.
 See Cecil Adams, “Were the witches of Salem a result of poisoning with ergot fungus?” The Straight Dope, January 14, 2005, http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/2579/were-the-witches-of-salem-a-result-of-poisoning-with-ergot-fungus. “While it’s rarely possible to prove or disprove these things conclusively, evidence for the ergotism-made-them-do-it theory is unpersuasive. . . . Doubters were quick to raise objections: Evidence of a cold winter and crop failure is dubious, and none of the accusers displayed the full array of symptoms needed to support a diagnosis of convulsive ergotism. . . . The counterarguments seem to have persuaded most historians, but a credulous 2001 PBS documentary has helped keep conjecture about ergotism alive.”
 This book is not designed to be a long philosophical tome about the nature of reality. Nor is this book about science. However, an article about Quantum physics caught my attention when it suggested that reality does not exist, except when we are viewing it. If this is right, then there is no reality and all is fantasy. Is there much difference then between saying that all, including fantasy, is reality and all, including reality, is fantasy? See Jon Cartwright, “Quantum physics says goodbye to reality,” PhysicsWorld.com, April 20, 2007, http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/27640. “Now physicists from Austria claim to have performed an experiment that rules out a broad class of hidden-variables theories that focus on realism — giving the uneasy consequence that reality does not exist when we are not observing it.”
 For example, see George Lincoln Burr, ed., Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706 (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1914), 174-175, available at http://books.google.com. Quoting Thomas Brattle, a New England merchant at the time who was critical of the trials, who wrote “The afflicted persons are brought into Court; and after much patience and pains taken with them, do take their oaths, that the prisoner at the bar did afflict them: And here I think it very observable, that often, when the afflicted do mean and intend only the appearance and shape of such an one, (say G. Proctour) yet they positively swear that G. Proctour did afflict them; and they have been allowed so to do; as tho’ there was no real difference between G. Proctour and the shape of G. Proctour.”
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3, under “Examination of Tituba” She said “the man brought her to me and made me pinch her” thus indicating that she had control of her specter.
 See Samuel Willard, Some Miscellany Observations on our Present Debates Respecting Witchcrafts, in a Dialogue Between S. & B. (Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1692) available at http://www.17thc.us/docs/willard.shtml. Willard was a Boston minister who opposed the Salem trials. He addressed this debate in this book. “S” represented the views of the minister and judges of Salem. “B” represented his views and the views of other ministers in Boston. He wrote:
S. Do you not believe that his Spectre is seen afflicting by the person afflicted?
B. Supposing it; yet it doth not hence follow that he is the Witch.
S. We must grant that it is the Devil in the Spectre; but it is by the Parties consent, and therefore it proves him Guilty.
B. I know you all plead so; and tell us that the Devil cannot represent an Innocent person doing mischief, but never
proved it; nor can we believe you.
At least one of the judges of the trials rejected the notion that the devil could use the shape of an innocent person. See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2, under “Examination of George Jacobs, Sr.” Jacobs stated “The Devil can taken any likeness” after he was asked why his image afflicted the victims. The response from the examiner was “Not without their consent.”
However, Cotton Mather asserted that the Devil could use the image of another, although he consider it rare. He believed that the appearance of a person’s image was cause for more investigation, but was not sufficient for a conviction. See Cotton Mather, Wonders, 18. “That the Devils may sometimes have a permission to Represent an Innocent Person, as Tormenting such as are under Diabolical Molestations: But that such things are Rare and Extraordinary.” And 28, “Even so a Spectre exactly resembling such or such a Person, when the Neighbourhood are tormented by such Spectres, may reasonably make Magistrates inquisitive whether the Person so represented have done or said any thing that may argue their confederacy with Evil Spirits, altho’ it may be defective enough in point of Conviction ; especially at a time, when ’tis possible, some over- powerful Conjurer may have got the skill of thus exhibiting the Shapes of all sorts of Persons, on purpose to stop the Prosecution of the Wretches, whom due Enquiries thus provoked, might have made obnoxious unto Justice.”
 Breslaw, Tituba, 175.
 See Calef, More Wonders, 189. See note 90 for more information about Calef’s credibility, or lack thereof.
 This represents the most extreme false characterizations of Bishop. For an example of a traditional wrong account of Bishop’s life see Karen Zeinert, The Salem Witchcraft Trials (New York: London: Toronto: Sydney: Venture, 1989) 50-52 “[s]he and her husband owned two taverns in the area, where laughter and noise continued late into the night. . . . To make matters worse, Bridget was a pretty woman who liked to dress up and show off. She wore red vests and brightly colored dresses trimmed with lace and lots of ribbons. Her garments were quite a contrast to the simple, gray clothing most Puritans thought proper.”
 This is a revision from an earlier edition which used a word that has ceased to be politically correct.
 See Avodah K. Offit, “NEITHER SIN NOR DUTY,” New York Times, Arts, March 16, 1986, available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEFDA143CF935A25750C0A960948260. Reviewing THE PURITAN CONSCIENCE AND MODERN SEXUALITY by Edmund Leites, the writer notes “In ”The Puritan Conscience and Modern Sexuality,” Edmund Leites tells us that a popular misconception of religious history holds the Puritans to have believed sex should be repressed if not extinguished. Most Americans, as well as the German sociologist Max Weber, whose views Mr. Leites more specifically rejects, have viewed the Puritans as harsh ascetics who procreated more by unfortunate accident than design, and, like Cotton Mather, only wrote about sex to drive lust from their hearts. Mr. Leites argues that Puritan sexuality in 17th- and 18th-century England occupied some sedate middle ground between Calvinist hell and a joyous agnostic anarchy. ”Sex was not simply for procreation or to avoid fornication but was good itself to the degree that it gave pleasure to both husband and wife.”
 Perhaps not the best reference, but this book is not focused on Puritan attitudes toward sex, see The Puritan Scene, “Christian History” http://www.christianchronicler.com/history1/puritan_scene.html. “In spite of popular mythology, the Puritans respected a healthy sexuality and saw human sexual relationships as normal unless they became obsessive. They punished illegitimacy albeit gently. When a girl conceived out of wedlock, Puritans generally tried to establish a family. Pregnancies often resulted from the Puritans’ curious custom of “bundling.” Bundling allowed a courting couple to sleep together in the girl’s home provided they were individually bundled.”
 See Samuel Sewall, Diary of Samuel Sewall: 1674-1729. v.1[-3] (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1882) available at http://books.google.com, 364. Sewall, one of the witch trial judges, and a Puritan clearly drank alcohol as most would have too. On this page he notes “After the Funeral, Many of the Council, went and wish’d Col. Fitch Joy of his daughter Martha’s Marriage with Mr. James Allen.1 Had good Bride-Cake, good Wine, Burgundy and Canary, good Beer, Oranges, Pears.”
 See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 71 – 85. Rosenthal credits David L. Greene with clarifying the situation with Bishop in 1981. Bridget Bishop was confused with Sarah Bishop, who was not executed. This mistake was apparently made in the records at the time at the trials. However, there is no reason to think that the judges were confused with her identity.
 A quick internet search of “Bridget Bishop” and “tavern” will produce many websites that continue to get this confused. The Wikipedia page for Bishop was wrong until this author corrected it.
 See note 152 for just one example.
 See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Indictment v. Bridget Bishop, No. 1. It clearly charges Bishop with practicing witchcraft “within the Towneship of Salem.” However, in volume 3, under “Indictment v. Tituba” it clearly charges that she practiced her witchcraft in the “Towne of Salem Village.” Salem Village was next to Salem Town and they were still technically part of the same political unit. But the people at the time recognized the difference between the two.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 82.
 Ibid, 74.
 Dorothy A. Mays, Women in Early America: Struggle, Survival, and Freedom in a New World (ABC-CLIO, 2004) 318.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Samuel Gray v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, under John Louder v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, under John Cook v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, under Richard Coman v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, under William Stacy v. Bridget Bishop.
 A quick internet search of the term will reveal many articles about this condition. Also, there are various web videos that can be found on http://www.google.com. For one example of an article on this see William Dement, “SLEEP PARALYSIS” updated January 26, 1999, visited February 10, 2009, at http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/paralysis.html. “In some cases, when hypnogogic hallucinations are present, people feel that someone is in the room with them, some experience the feeling that someone or something is sitting on their chest and they feel impending death and suffocation. That has been called the “Hag Phenomena” and has been happening to people over the centuries. These things cause people much anxiety and terror, but there is no physical harm.” Of course, if one had a weak heart it is not hard to image that the victim could be harmed physically.
 Ibid. Of course, it is possible that what is seen is actually real and that the dreamer is merely waking up to another dimension where his worst fears are reality. However, since Bishop was convicted and executed for her crimes this chapter will focus more on the strength of traditional evidence. It is fine to speculate about Tituba and reality, but the law should focus more on our present reality as it is more concrete.
 Ibid. Reducing stress is one of the recommendations from Dr. William Dement on how to reduce the likelihood of experiencing this horrible thing again.
 See Chris Mooney, “Waking Up to Sleep Paralysis,” The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, April 13, 2005, at http://www.csicop.org/doubtandabout/sleep/. “When it comes to “alien abduction” claims and any number of other sleep-related “paranormal” encounters–whether with ghosts, vampires, werewolves, or whatever else– skeptics have long suspected the existence of a simple, overarching explanation. And now a string of papers by scientists at Harvard University, the latest of which was published by Transcultural Psychiatry in March, bolster the notion that such stories can be traced back to the common experience known as sleep paralysis, and the hallucinations that sometimes accompany it. . . . Moreover, as cultural notions shift over time, we can expect that the apparitions hallucinated during sleep paralysis will also shift their identities in relation to societal and media cues.”
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 30.
 American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (Worcester, American Antiquarian Society, 1911) 203-204.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 30.
 Ibid, 276.
 Ibid, 33.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., Salem-village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England (University Press of New England, 1993) 157.-158.
 As discussed, Bishop was from Salem Town, while the initial accusers were from Salem Village. It is likely that Bishop had never even set foot in Salem Village before. When questioned by the judges in Salem Village as to why she afflicted children there she stated “I never saw these persons before, nor I never was in this place before.” See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Examination of Bridget Bishop, First Version.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Case Bridget Bishop Executed, June 10, 1692.
 See George Lincoln Burr, ed., Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648-1706 (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1914), 187-188, available at http://books.google.com. Quoting Thomas Brattle “Many of these afflicted persons, who have scores of strange fitts in a day, yet in the intervals of time are hale and hearty, robust and lusty, as tho’ nothing had afflicted them. I Remember that when the chief Judge gave the first Jury their charge, he told them, that they were not to mind whether the bodies of the said afflicted were really pined and consumed, as was expressed in the inditement; but whether the said afflicted did not suffer from the accused such afflictions as naturally tended to their being pined and consumed, wasted, etc. This, (said he,) is a pining and consuming in the sense of the law. I add not.”
 See Hansen, Witchcraft, 81- 83. This section of the book deals with deaths caused by witchcraft. Hansen believed it was possible to kill a person through witchcraft, if the victim believed that it was possible, and he cited examples, including some that would have been known to the Salem judges.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Examination of Bridget Bishop, First Version.
 Ibid, Examination of Bridget Bishop, Second Version.
 Ibid, Examination of Bridget Bishop, First Version.
 See note 148.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 31.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 Physical Examination of Bridget Bishop, Rebecca Nurse, Elizabeth Proctor, Alice Parker, Susannah Martin, and Sarah Good, No. 1.
 Ibid, Physical Examination, No. 2.
 For example, John Proctor, who was executed for witchcraft did not have a mark that could be found. See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2, under Physical Examination of John Proctor and John Willard. “We whose names under written haveing searched the bodyes of John procter sen’r & John Williard now in the Goale & doe not find any thing to farther suspect them”.
 See note 93. Increase Mather believed that such evidence from bewitched or possessed persons had no value and should not be used because whatever knowledge they had came from the Devil. “But what they affirm concerning others, is not to be taken for Evidence.” See note 148 for Cotton Mather’s view, quoting Perkins, that the identification of a specter by an afflicted person, while not enough alone for a conviction, does justify further investigation as it is rare that an innocent person is impersonated wrongly by Satan.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under William Stacy v. Bridget Bishop. “This Deponet
doth veryly beleive that the said Bridget Bishop was Instumentall to his Daughter Prisillas Death: aboute two years
agoe; the Child was a likely Thriveing Child. And sudenly Screaked out and soe continued in an unusuall Manner for aboute. a fortnight & soe dyed in that lamentable manner”.
 The stereotype, that anyone will hear from the man on the street, is that the accusers were all, or mostly, hysterical girls. This is, of course, wrong.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., Salem-village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England (York: University Press of New England, 1993) 159 – 162.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under William Stacy v. Bridget Bishop.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 65.
 Ibid, 66.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Samuel and Sarah Shattuck v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, under John Louder v. Bridget Bishop.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 32.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 33.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under John Bly, Sr., and William Bly v. Bridget Bishop.
 Ibid, John Bly, Sr. and Rebecca Bly v. Bridget Bishop.
 Breslaw, Tituba, 48.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 65.
 Ibid, 80 – 86.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 137. “To crown all, John Ely and William Ely testify’d, That being employ’d by Bridget Bishop, to help to take down the Cellar-wall of the old House wherein she formerly lived, they did in holes of the said old Wall, find several Poppets, made up of Rags and Hogs-bristles, with headless Pins in them, the Points being outward; whereof she could give no Account unto the Court, that was reasonable or tolerable.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., Salem-village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England (York: University Press of New England, 1993) 155-156.
 See note 93.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Deliverance Hobbs v. Bridget Bishop et al. and Mary Warren v. Bridget Bishop and Nathaniel Cary [?].
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Susannah Sheldon v. Bridget Bishop and Elizabeth Hubbard v. Bridget Bishop and Mary Warren.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under John Cook v. Bridget Bishop.
 Cotton Mather does not seem to have questioned it either. See Cotton Mather, Wonders, 131.
 See notes 157 and 158. It is believed that the account of the Reverend John Hale was about Sarah Bishop, not Bridget Bishop.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Death Warrant v. Bridget Bishop.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 68.
 See Harris, transc., Salem Village Church Record Book, under 1706. Aug. 25. “The confession of Anne Putnam when she was received to communion. . . . I then being in my childhood should by such a providence of God be made an instrument for yt accuseing of severall persons of a grievous crime wherby their lives were taken away from them, whom now I have just grounds and good reason to believe they were innocent persons, and yt it was a great delusion of Satan yt deceived me in that sad time, whereby I justly fear I have been instrumental with others tho’ ignorantly and unwittingly to bring upon myself & this land the guilt of innocent blood Though what was said or done by me against any person I can truly and uprightly say before God & man I did it not out of any anger, malice, or illwill to any person for I had no such thing against one of them; but what I did was ignorantly being deluded by Satan.”
 See Wikipedia contributors, “Common law,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Common_law&oldid=270804492 (accessed February 15, 2009). This provides general background information about how the law develops and is a good place to start for further research on this aspect of legal history.
 For example, see Rosenthal, Salem Story, 180. Rosenthal also quotes Brattle saying that many judges in Boston were unhappy at the trials. It is a fair point. As mentioned above, Massachusetts was not a harsh theocracy with no dissent. It wasn’t a theocracy and it was not as harsh as commonly thought. The fact that there was obvious dissent actually lends credibility to the witnesses as the court was willing to believe them despite the fact that some highly respected citizens were opposed to the proceedings.
 Ibid, 233. Rosenthal notes that one source, Boyer and Nissenbaum, state that he resigned between June 10 and June 15. However, another source, Daniel Neal, listed Saltonstall as a judge at George Burrough’s trial later that summer. However, Thomas Brattle lists Saltonstall as one of many persons who was very upset with the trials. See Burr, ed., Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 184. Quoting Brattle, “Major N. Saltonstall, Esq. who was one of the Judges, has left the Court, and is very much dissatisfyed with the proceedings of it.”
 Hearsay is an out of court statement that is used to prove the truth of the matter asserted. In Shattuck’s testimony, for example, he testified that about things that other people had told him as if they were true. Hearsay appears to have been allowed in the proceedings. Still, Shattuck’s own observations and the observations of his wife, who also testified, may have provided enough evidence to convict. It is unknown if the court heard personally from Shattuck’s son who was attacked by Bishop. Perhaps if Shattuck’s son had run home after the attack and told his parents of what had happened, his statements could be allowed in a modern court under the excited utterance exception to hearsay. Still, I think that Bishop would now have a Constitution right to confront that witness if his statements were to come into evidence.
 See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 87 – 89. Rosenthal discusses the various writers, including Chadwick Hansen who is cited often here, as stating that Good was elderly.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under Warrant v. Sarah Good and Examination of Sarah Good.
 Ibid, under Examination of Sarah Good.
 Ibid. “I did not mutter but I thanked him for what he gave my child” was her response when asked why she went away muttering from the Parris house after they gave her some charity.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 66.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under Examination of Sarah Good.
 Ibid. When asked “Who was it then that tormented the children” she replied “it was osburn.”
 See, for example, Wikipedia contributors, “Bogomilism,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bogomilism&oldid=269572680 (accessed February 16, 2009). “The Bogomils taught that God had two sons, the elder Satanail and the younger Michael. The elder son rebelled against the father and became the evil spirit. After his fall he created the lower heavens and the earth.” Also see Wikipedia contributors, “Catharism,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Catharism&oldid=270949401 (accessed February 16, 2009). “[M]any rejected the traditional view of the Old Testament — proclaiming that the God of the Old Testament was really the devil.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under Examination of Sarah Good.
 Ibid, under William Allen, John Hughes, William Good, and Samuel Braybrook v. Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba.
 Ibid, under Samuel Abbey and Mary Abbey v. Sarah Good.
 I am not an expert on translations of the Bible. This is one view which has been expressed to me by numerous people. This right wing Protestant website, http://www.chick.com/ask/articles/witch.asp, states that it was not a mistranslation. According to it, God does not want us to suffer a witch to live.
 See Suzan Stone Sierralupe, “Path of the Green Witch” at http://www.herbshealing.com/Article_Green_Witch.htm. This witch discusses the uses of plants to heal. A witch with bad motives could just as easily find plants to kill.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under Sarah Gadge v. Sarah Good.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under Thomas Gadge v. Sarah Good.
 See D.P. Lyle, MD, “The Myth of the Untraceable Poison” available at http://www.dplylemd.com/Articles/Poisonmyth.html. “One of the most common questions I get from writers is: Is there a poison that can’t be found in a corpse? The answer is No. And Yes.” The people of 17th century New England would not have had access to any way of testing for poisons, so it had a far better chance of not being detected. But Dr. Lyle notes that a person today could get away with poisoning under the right circumstances.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2, under Henry Herrick and Jonathan Batchelor v. Sarah Good.
 See, for example, Wikipedia contributors, “Tobacco,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tobacco&oldid=270377971 (accessed February 17, 2009). This site will direct you to more information regarding the history of tobacco.
 Daniel Wait Howe, The Puritan Republic of the Massachusetts Bay in New England (Indianapolis: The Bowen-Merrill company, 1899), available at http://books.google.com, 104-105. “Tobacco.—A vigorous and persistent war was waged against the use of tobacco. In 1632, the General Court forbade the taking of any tobacco ‘publiquely.’ In 1634 it was further ordered that no person should take tobacco, either ‘publiquely or privately in another, before strangers & that two or more shall not take it togeather anywhere.’ A short time afterwards the purchase and sale of tobacco was expressly prohibited.1 In 1637, tne law against buy- . ing and selling tobacco was repealed, but other laws were subsequently enacted to discourage its use, all of which seem to have been unavailing.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2 under William Allen, John Hughes, William Good, and Samuel Braybrook v. Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba. “William Allen further saith that on the 2’d day of march the s’d Sarah Good vissabley appeared to him in his chamber s’d allen beeing in bed and brought an unuseuall light in w’th her the s’d Sarah came and sate upon his foot the s’d allen went to kick att her upon which shee vanished and the light with her.”
 Ibid, under Summary of Evidence v. Sarah Good. “ Dorothy Goods Charge ag’t. her mother Sarah Good. That she had three birds one black, one yellow & that these birds hurt the Children & afflicted persons. [H]er own Confession”.
 Ibid. “W’m Good. that she hath a strange Tett or wort”.
 Calef, More Wonders, 209.
 The finest man on the bench was Samuel Sewall. Sewall would later author a tract against slavery. This was an unpopular position to take. See Eve Laplante, The Life and Repentance of Samuel Sewall (New York: HarperColins, 2007) 228-230. “Samuel received many ‘frowns and hard words’ in response to The Selling of Joseph . . . . In a society that rejected racial equality – and had not yet conceived of civil rights – Samuel continued to work for these causes.” The judges of the court were not monsters. They were good men who thought that they were doing justice. At least one of those men was a great humanitarian and a civil rights activist. Samuel Sewall was a man of character and would not have witnessed this clear perjury and then disregarded it.
To review Sewall’s tract against slavery see Wikisource contributors, “The Selling of Joseph,” Wikisource, The Free Library, http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Selling_of_Joseph&oldid=463133 (accessed February 18, 2009).
Thomas Hutchinson, who would serve as Governor of the Commonwealth almost a century later, also expressed some skepticism of this claim. See Thomas Hutchinson, The Witchcraft Delusion of 1692, available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=HutPool.xml&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all. He wrote regarding this incident “This account, if true, would give me a more unfavorable opinion even of the integrity of the court, if I had not met with something not unlike to it in the trials before Sir Matthew Hale. The afflicted children in their fits upon the least touch from Rose Cullender, one of the supposed witches, would shriek out, which they would not do when touched by any other person. Lest there should be any fraud, Lord Cornwallis, Sir Edmund Bacon, Sergeant Keeling and other gentlemen attended one of the girls whilst she was in her fits at another part of the hall, and one of the witches was brought, and an apron put before the girl’s eyes, but instead of the witch’s hand another person’s hand was taken to touch the girl, who thereupon shrieked out as she used to do. The gentlemen returned and declared to the court they believed the whole was an imposture. The witch was found guilty notwithstanding, and the judge and all the court wore fully satisfied with the verdict and awarded sentence accordingly.” Emphasis mine.
 For an example of the interplay between poison and witchcraft see Jason Bennetto, “Torso boy swallowed witchcraft poison bean,” The Independent, October 17, 2003. “The boy known as Adam whose torso was found dumped in the river Thames was paralysed and killed by a poisonous bean used in African witchcraft.” Also, the confusion between the translation in the Bible over suffering a witch to live versus suffering a poisoner to live certainly indicates that the two are deeply related.
 Burr, ed., Narratives, 258-287. The author reprinted an account from Cotton Mather of the incident.
 Calef, More Wonders, 209.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 126.
 Luke 23:34.
 Rom. 12:14. “Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not.”
 See Hansen, Witchcraft, 127. “[T]radition has it that twenty-five years later, when Nicholas Noyes lay dying, he chocked upon the blood that poured copiously from his mouth. And when that happened, Salem remembered Sarah Good’s words with feels that were more than a little ambiguous. Hutchinson, who reported the tradition in his History if 1750, says that the people of Salem in his day still considered Sarah Good ‘if not a witch, a Pythonissa’ [someone possessed by a spirit and prophesying by its aid.]. Hansen’s citation is History, vol 2, p. 41 second footnote. This volume does not appear to be available on the internet. Hansen also refers the reader to Charles Wentworth Upham account in 1867. This is available on the internet. See Charles Wentworth Upham, Salem Witchcraft: With an Account of Salem Village, and a History of Opinions on Witchcraft and Kindred Subjects (Boston: Wiggin and Lunt, 1867) available at http://books.google.com, 270. “Hutchinson says that, in his day, there was a tradition among the people of Salem, and it has descended to the present time, that the manner of Mr. Noyes’s death strangely verified the prediction thus wrung from the incensed spirit of the dying woman. He was exceedingly corpulent, of a plethoric hahit, and died of an internal hemorrhage, bleeding profusely at the mouth.”
 See David Yonke, “Satanic aspects left out of trial; prosecutor says priest’s murder of nun had cult hallmarks,”Toledo Blade, May 13, 2006, http://www.toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060513/NEWS02/605130372; Mark Reiter, “Priest named in lawsuit that alleges ritual abuse,” Toledo Blade, April 21, 2005, http://www.toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050421/NEWS02/504210415/0/NEWS; Michael D. Sallah and Mitch Weiss, “Dark allegations arise amid probe of nun’s slaying,” Toledo Blade, February 20, 2005, http://toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050220/NEWS08/502200352&SearchID=73199948054601.
 Ibid, especially in regards to “Satanic aspects left out of trial . . .”
 Fatima News Network, “Satanism is Practiced in the Vatican!” Fatima News, http://www.fatima.org/news/newsviews/milsatanism.asp.
 See Fatima Network, “Information Request,” Fatima News, https://secure.fatima.org/forms/crusader.asp. “It regularly features the work of major Fatima experts such as Frere Michel, Father Alonso and Father Paul Leonard as well as the writings of the saints and the penetrating news analysis by leading conservative commentators.” Emphasis mine.
 Fatima News Network, “The Story of Fatima,” The Fatima Network, http://www.fatima.org/essentials/facts/story1.asp.
 Fatima News Network, “Satanism is Practiced,” Fatima News.
 See Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, “Notification Regarding Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo,” Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, July 16, 2001, at http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?id=3937&repos=1&subrepos=0&searchid=416042.
 “Vatican pulls passport of excommunicated archbishop,” Catholic World News, October 15, 2007, at http://www.catholicculture.org/news/features/index.cfm?recnum=54161&repos=4&subrepos=1&searchid=416042.
 Johann Peter Kirsch, “Simon Magus,” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912.) at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13797b.htm. “But, as was evident later, his conversion was not the result of the inner conviction of faith in Christ as the Redeemer, but rather from selfish motives, for he hoped to gain greater magical power and thus to increase his influence. For when the Apostles Peter and John came to Samaria to bestow on the believers baptized by Philip the outpouring of the Spirit which was accompanied by miraculous manifestations, Simon offered them money, desiring them to grant him what he regarded as magical power, so that he also by the laying on of hands could bestow the Holy Ghost, and thereby produce such miraculous results. Full of indignation at such an offer Peter rebuked him sharply, exhorted him to penance and conversion and warned him of the wickedness of his conduct. Under the influence of Peter’s rebuke Simon begged the Apostles to pray for him (Acts 8:9-29). However, according to the unanimous report of the authorities of the second century, he persisted in his false views. The ecclesiastical writers of the early Church universally represent him as the first heretic, the ‘Father of Heresies’.”
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 6.
 Ibid, 77.
 See, for example, Cotton Mather, Wonders, 17. “There are many parts of the World, who if they do upon this Occasion insult over this People of God, need only to be told the Story of what happen’d at Loim, in the Dutchy of Gulic, where a Popish Curate having ineffectually try’d many Charms to Eject the Devil out of a Damsel there possessed, he passionately bid the Devil come out of her into himself; but the Devil answered him, Quid mihi Opus, est eum tentare, quem Novissimo die, Jure Optimo, sum possessurus ? That is, What need I meddle with one whom I am sure to have, and hold at the Last-day as my own for ever!”
 For example, see Anastasia Karson, “Revenge in the Salem Witchcraft Hysteria: The Putnam Family and George Burroughs” Loyola University Student Historical Journal, vol 30, http://www.loyno.edu/history/journal/1998-9/documents/RevengeintheSalemWitchcraftHysteria_ThePutnamFamilyandGeorgeBurroughs.pdf. “The members of the Putnam family were significant contributors to this aspect of the hysteria. Their greatest victim was George Burroughs, a former minister of Salem Village.”
 John Wesley Hanson, History of the Town of Danvers, from Its Early Settlement to the Year 1848 (Danvers: John Wesley Hanson, 1848) at http://books.google.com, 225.
 See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 149-150.
 There are a variety of theories as to the genetic makeup of British people that are complex and unnecessary to spell out.
 Laplante, Salem Witch Judge, 164-169.
 Calef, More Wonders, 9.
 See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 131. “The history of the Puritan controversy with the Baptists was long and complex, but by 1692 the power to suppress Baptist theology had almost completely evaporated. 142, “[Increase Mather had assured] the Queen of England that he tolerated [religious dissenters such as Baptists].
 “Important Persons in the Salem Court Records ,” (The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project) at http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/saxon-salem/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=salem/texts/names.xml&style=salem/xsl/dynaxml.xsl&group.num=all&mbio.num=mb3&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes. “George Burroughs was the only Puritan minister indicted and executed in Salem in 1692. He served as minister of Salem Village from 1680 until he left in 1683.”
Also see, “SALEM VILLAGE RECORD BOOK Transcription published in installments in The Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society, 1924-1931” (Danvers: Danvers Historical Society) at Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library, at http://etext.virginia.edu/. “The: 25th of November: 1680 voat att a meeting of the Inhabitants of the Farmes that it was agreed that Mr. Burroughs for his mentenance amoungst us Is to Have for the year ensewing sixty pounds in and as mony one third part in mony cartain the other two thirds In provision att money prise as followeth “ The 24th Day of May: 1683: Att A Meeting of The Inhabitants of Salem village It was voated That sarjant Fuller is Desiered to write to Mr. Lawson to come to preach with us on the next saboth Day come sennettnextly voated that the Committe shall Make a Ratte of fiveteen pounds for Mr. Burroughs for the Last quarter of a year He preached with us.”
 “Important Persons” (The Salem Witch Trials Documentary). “As one of the succession of three ministers who left the Village in the years leading up to the trials, he became involved in the Village’s social conflicts.”
 Ibid. “During his stay in Salem he borrowed money from the Putnam family and when he was unable to pay it back, conflict with the Putnams arose. It was at this point that he left. Although he eventually repaid his loan . . . .”
 Wikipedia contributors, “George Burroughs,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Burroughs&oldid=269683299 (accessed February 28, 2009). Wikipedia contributors are not shy about claiming that Burroughs was killed over the money he previously owned. “In May 1692, during the Salem witch trials, based on the accusation of some of his personal enemies from his former congregation who had sued him for debt, Burroughs was arrested and charged, among other offenses, with extraordinary weight lifting of a musket with a finger in the barrel and such feats of strength as could not be done without diabolical assistance.”
 There is simply no credible evidence of him serving as anything but a Puritan minister. He never asserted at his trial that he was a religious dissenter.
 See Calef, More Wonders, 212. Calef had no apparent motive to lie about these particular facts.
 See Cotton Mather, Diary of Cotton Mather, 1681-1724 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1911) at http://books.google.com, 142. “but all agreeing in Burroughs being their Ringleader, who, I suppose, this Day receives his Trial at Salem, whither a Vast Concourse of people is gone; My Father, this morning among the Rest.”
See Cotton Mather, Wonders, 286. Increase Mather’s remarks are published. He wrote, “I was not myself present at any of the Tryals, excepting one, viz. that of George Burroughs ; had I been one of Ins Judges, I could not have acquitted him.”
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 286. Again, Increase Mather wrote, “I am glad that there is published to the World (by my Son) a Breviate of the Tryal of some who were lately executed, whereby I hope the thinking part of Mankind will be satisfied, that there was more than that which is called Spectre Evidence for the Conviction of the Persons condemned.”
 Laplante, Salem Witch Judge, 165. “Samuel [Sewall] and Burroughs had kept up a friendly correspondence. . . . Samuel was not the only player in the drama with personal links to George Burroughs. Judge Hathorne . . . was related to Burroughs by marriage.”
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 120.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Examination of Tituba — A Second Version. “A. black Cloaths Some times, Some times Searge Coat of other Couler, a Tall man w’th white hayr, I think.”
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 125. “He was a very Puny Man . . . .”
 Ibid, 123. “G.B. had been Infamous for the Barbarous usage of his two late Wives, all the Country over.”
 Ibid. “[O]ne of the Bewitched Persons was cast into Horror at the Ghost of B’s two Deceased Wives then appearing before him, and crying for Vengeance against him. Hereupon several of the Bewitched Persons were successively called in, who all not knowing what the former had seen and said, concurred in their Horror of the Apparition, which they affirmed that he had before him.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Examination of George Burroughs and Summary of Evidence. “He denyed that he made his wife swear, that she should not write to her Father Ruck without his approbation of her letter to her Father.” Burroughs’s denial, however, was likely not believed by the court.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 126.
 Ibid, 126 – 127. “That he has brought them to the point of Death. by his harsh Dealings with his Wives, and then made the People about him, to promise that in case Death should happen, they would say nothing of it;”
 Ibid, 127.
 Ibid, 127 – 128.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 75-76.
 Ibid, 76. “[T]he Christian God does not deal in the occult, particularly at the level of family gossip . . . .”
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 150.”[T]he accused minister mounted an aggressive defense.”
 See Increase Mather, Cases, as reprinted in Wonders, 282. “And have not men been seen to do things which are above humane Strength, that no man living could do without Diabolical Assistances ? Claudia was seen by Witnesses enough, to draw a Ship which no humane Strength could move. Tuccia a Vestal Virgin was seen to carry Water in a Sieve . . . .”
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 125 – 126. “A Gun of about seven foot Barrel, and so heavy that strong Men could not steadily hold it out with both hands; there were several Testimonies, given in by Persons of Credit and Honor, that he made nothing of taking up such a Gun behind the Lock, with but one hand, and holding it out like a Pistol, at Arms-end. G. B. in his Vindication, was so foolish as to say, That an Indian was there, and held it out at the same time: Whereas none of the Spectators ever saw any such Indian; but they supposed, the Black Man, (as the Witches call the Devil; and they generally say he resembles an Indian) might give him that Assistance.”
 Ibid, 126. “There was Evidence likewise brought in, that he made nothing of taking up whole Barrels fill’d with Molasses or Cider, in very disadvantageous Postures, and Carrying of them through the difficultest Places out of a Canoo to the Shore.”
 Ibid. “Yea, there were two Testimonies, that G. B. with only putting the Fore Finger of his Right hand into the Muzzle of an heavy Gun, a Fowling-piece of about six or seven foot Barrel, did lift up the Gun, and hold it out at Arms- end ; a Gun which the Deponents thought strong Men could not with both hands lift up, and hold out at the But- end, as is usual.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Mary Webber v. George Burroughs.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1, under Examination of George Burroughs
and Summary of Evidence. “Being askt w’n he partook of the Lords supper, he being (as he said) in full comunion at Roxbury. He answered it was so long since he could not tell: yet he owned he was at meeting one Sab: at Boston part of the day, & the other at Charlestown part of a Sab: when that sacrament happened to be at both, yet did not partake of either. . . . He owned that none of his children, but the eldest was Baptized.”
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 129 – 150.
 Enoch Pond, The Lives of Increase Mather and Sir William Phipps (Boston: Massachusetts Sabbath school society, 1847) at http://books.google.com, 77. Speaking first of Increase, the author noted that “At an early period, he assisted in ordaining the pastor of a Baptist church in his immediate neighborhood; and Cotton Mather, speaking of the state of things in New England at a later period, says : ‘Calvinists with Lutherans, Presbyterians with Episcopalians, Pedo- baptists with Anabaptists, beholding one another to fear God and work righteousness, do with delight sit down together at the same table of the Lord; nor do they hurt one another in the holy mountain.’” Although the author did write that both were critical of toleration at earlier parts of their careers. Increase Mather was certainly in the later part of his career at the time of the witch trials and likely would have assisted in the ordination of the Baptist minister prior to Burroughs’s trial. So the notion that Increase Mather wanted Burroughs killed because Burroughs was a Baptist is completely wrong and illogical.
 M.G. Hall, ed., The Autobiography of Increase Mather (American Antiquarian Society: 1961) 334, cited in Rosenthal, Salem Story, 142 and quoted on 249.
 Another case of a mysterious man who only Burroughs could see?
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 128 – 129.
 See Increase Mather, Cases, 286 as reprinted in Cotton Mather, Wonders. “I hope the thinking part of Mankind will be satisfied, that there was more than that which is called Spectre Evidence for the Conviction of the Persons condemned. I was not myself present at any of the Tryals, excepting one, vis. that of George Burroughs; had I been one of bis Judges, I could not have acquitted him : For several Persons did upon Oath testifie, that they saw him do such things as no Man that has not a Devil to be his Familiar could perform : And the Judges affirm, that they have not convicted any one meerly on the account of what Spectres have said, or of what has been represented to the Eyes or Imaginations of the sick bewitched Persons.” Increase Mather’s statements were overly optimistic about the court as it is clear that in some cases (especially with Rebeca Nurse) the court only relied on spectral evidence. However, in this trial, which he attended, there was clearly sufficient evidence, if believed, for a conviction.
 Hale, A Modest Inquiry.
 Calef, More Wonders, 212 – 213.
 Laplante, Salem Witch Judge, 169. I could not find her citation for the original source. It appears to be missing. This part of Sewall’s diary is not yet online, but I am confident that this account of Sewall’s writing is accurate.
 This view was so widespread that even the court considered it as a possible factor in its questions. See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Examination of John Willard. “Can you pray the Lords prayer?
Let us hear you.
He stumbled at the thresh hold & said Maker of heaven & earth”
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 49. “Another such test was asking the accused to repeat the Lord’s Prayer. It was believed that a witch could not say it correctly, even after prompting, since she regularly said it backwards at her witch’s Sabbaths . . . . Many of the learned, including Increase Mather and Deodat Lawson, rejected such tests outright as superstitions or as white magic or both.
 Ibid. “Others, like Cotton Mather, were willing to countenance experiments with them but refused to accept them as certain evidence.”
 Kenneth Murdock, Increase Mather (Cambridge: 1926) 315-316 as cited in Hansen, Witchcraft, 205. Hansen, citing Murdock, notes, “As Kenneth Murdock has pointed out, every single judge from the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer was elected to the Governor’s Council in 1693, and Sewall got more votes than Nathaniel Saltonstall, who had resigned from the court. Massachusetts politics after 1692 shows no trace of popular resentment against the judges. Indeed, the opposite is true; there is every reason to believe that Massachusetts still had confidence in the judges.
 Hansen, Witchcraft 123 – 127. Much of Hansen’s book is actually dedicated to vindicating the clergy for their role in the trials.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 144 – 145.
 Ibid, 145.
 For example, see Essex Institute Historical Collection, IX (2nd series vol. I) part II, 89 -90 as cited in Hansen, Witchcraft, 206 – 207. When Governor Phips consulted the Royal Court for advice after he put a hold on the trials, he was told by Queen Mary “that in all proceedings against persons accused for witchcraft or being possessed by the Devil the greatest moderation and all due circumspection be used . . .” This was a vaguely worded blessing of his decision to stop the trials. No one was executed for witchcraft in New England after this.
 This is the opinion of Wikipedia contributors and is, as usual, wrong. See Wikipedia contributors, “George Burroughs,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Burroughs&oldid=269683299 (accessed March 2, 2009). “But the death of George Burroughs brought about a change in attitudes amongst the citizens of Essex County and was a contributing factor to the end of the hysteria.”
 See Maps, (The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project) at http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/salem/maps/.
 This information is from Calef, but there is no particular reason to think that he was lying about this. See Calef, More Wonders, 223.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Samuel Wardwell Executed, September 22, 1692.
 As cited in Cotton Mather, Wonders, 33.
 Ibid, 32.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Ephraim Foster v. Samuel Wardwell.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Thomas Chandler v. Samuel Wardwell.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 Abigail Martin and John Bridges v. Samuel Wardwell.
 See note 315.
 1 Samuel 28:3-25.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Joseph Ballard v. Samuel Wardwell.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Examination of Samuel Wardwell. “Sam’ll Wardwell: owned: to the grand Inquest: that: the above written: Conffession: was; taken: from his mouth and that he had said it: but: he s’d he belyed: himselfe: he also s’d it was alone one: he: knew he should dye for it: whether: he ownd it or no Sept’r 13’th 1692.”
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 156. “Samuel Wardwell believed he was headed for the gallows in any event. He probably miscalculated.” This seems like a correct argument.
 Ibid. Rosenthal compared Wardwell’s situation to that of Doras Hoar. Hoar was also condemned to die with Wardwell, having previously maintained her innocence in her trial, but later received a reprieve after she confessed.
 Ibid, 151 – 158. This is essentially Rosenthal’s argument and not a bad one.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Examination of Samuel Wardwell.
 Perhaps he was really dealing with a Nigerian conman and not Satan. (My editor found this and many other comments in the book “inappropriate”. The great thing about “self-publishing” is that you have the final say. I wouldn’t have it any other way.)
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Examination of Samuel Wardwell. Regarding the Devil getting angry at prayer, Wardwell said only “And further that when he would goe to prayer in his family the devil wold begin to be angry.” It is not clear how the Devil expressed this anger to Wardwell.
 Ibid. Rosenthal would clearly see the part about baptism as a sign that the court was concerned with religious dissenters as well as witches. See Rosenthal, Salem Story, 133 and 157.
 There is simply no hint that he was tortured or subjected to any harsh forms of interrogation. Of course, mental coercion could have occurred. See Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Petition of the Andover Ministers and Twenty-Two Others — October 1692. “But whereas it may be alledged, that the most of our people that have been apprehended for witchcraft, have upon Examination confessed it. To which we Answer that we have nothing to plead for those that freely and upon conviction own themselves guilty; but we apprehend the case of some of them to be otherwise. for from the information we have had and the discourse some of us have had with the prisoners, we have reason to think that the extream urgency that was used with some of them by their friends and others who privately examined them, and the fear they were then under, hath been an inducement to them to own such things, as we cannott since find thay are conscious of; and the truth of what we now declare, we judge will in time more plainly appear. And some of them have exprest to their neighbours that it hath been their great trouble, that they have wronged themselves and the truth in their confessions.” Also, here is another case of ministers showing restraint and concern for justice and not leading the charge for prosecutions, despite the fact that they accepted the reality and danger of witchcraft (calling it “so horrid a crime”).
 Calef, More Wonders, 221.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 205 – 207.
 Ibid, 70.
 Ibid, 86.
 Ibid, 70 – 71.
 Ibid, 71. Hansen wrote that she “had for many years been the town witch of Marblehead.” But he offers no citation to support this claim.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3 under Indictment v. Wilmott Reed, No. 1. “That Willmott Redd Wife of Samuel Redd of Marblehead In the County of Essex fisherman . . . .”
 Ibid, under Examination of Wilmott Reed.
 Ibid, under Charity Pitman v. Wilmott Reed, Sarah Dodd v. Wilmott Reed, and Ambrose Gale v. Wilmott Reed.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 92.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Examination of Candy.
 Hale, Modest Enquiry, 80 as cited in Hansen, Witchcraft, 240.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 71. “It does not seem to have occurred to anyone at the time that in experimenting with these charms the magistrates were themselves practicing witchcraft, and with dramatic and conspicuous success.”
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 1 under Indictment v. Candy, No. 1 and Indictment v. Candy, No. 2. “Candy Negro: for bewitching Mary Wallcott Billa Vera, *Robert Payne foreman. Ponet Se. The juery find the person here inditted not gilty of this indittement.” “Candy Negro: for bewitching Ann Putnum Billa Vera,
*Robert Payne foreman Ponet Se. The juery find the person here inditted not gilty of this indittement.”
 Although the governor granted them clemency.
 Plato, The Republic of Plato: an Ideal Commonwealth, trans. Benjamin Jowett, Thomas Taylor, John Llewelyn Davies, David James Vaughan (Oxford: The Colonial Press, 1888), 142.
 See, for example, B.A. Robinson, “Is Wicca a form of Satanism?” Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, September 11, 2000, last updated January 28, 2008. http://www.religioustolerance.org/wic_sata.htm.
 For example, see Peter M. Stravinskas, The Catholic Answer Book, Book 3 (Our Sunday Visitor Publishing: 1998), preview available at http://books.google.com, 64.
 See, for example, B.A. Robinson, “Winter Solstice celebrations: a.k.a. Christmas, Saturnalia, Yule, the Long Night, etc.” Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, December 3, 1999, last updated December 23, 2007. http://www.religioustolerance.org/winter_solstice.htm.
 See Hansen, Witchcraft, 3-4.
 For an interesting article on this see Doug Ward, “COTTON MATHER’S DILEMMA: CHRISTMAS IN PURITAN NEW ENGLAND,” Unity in Christ. http://www.unityinchrist.com/history/print/cotton.htm.
 For example, a person who is known only as “Heather” has set up a website with free spells at http://www.everythingunderthemoon.net/bookofshadows.htm.
 B.A. Robinson, “Is Wicca a form of Satanism?”. http://www.religioustolerance.org/wic_sata.htm. “Their rule of behavior is called the Wiccan Rede: “An it harm none, do what thou wilt.” i.e. do whatever you wish, as long as it harms no one, including yourself. Unlike Satanists, Wiccans are not allowed do dominate, manipulate, control, or harm others.”
 Wikipedia contributors, “Parcae,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parcae&oldid=278557657 (accessed March 27, 2009). While not my favorite source, this information is not controversial nor is it the main subject of this book. The reader can research this issue in more detail if he/she wants to.
 This point was made to me personally by a friend who considered himself Wiccan.
 This was also Plato’s view of God and the gods. See Plato, The Republic, 62. “Then God, if he be good, is not the author of all things, as the many assert, but he is the cause of a few things only, and not of most things that occur to men. For few are the goods of human life, and many are the evils, and the good is to be attributed to God alone; of the evils the causes are to be sought elsewhere, and not in him.” 75. “We will not have them trying to persuade our youth that the gods are the authors of evil . . . sentiments which, as we were saying, are neither pious nor true, for we have already proved that evil cannot come from the gods.”
 There are various discussions of this point in different sources. For one example see William J. Byron, S.J., “Why isn’t God answering my prayer?” Catholic Digest. http://www.catholicdigest.com/article/why-isnt-god-answering-my-prayer. “Consider the distinction between the positive and permissive will of God. God permits, but does not positively will bad things to happen — permits suffering for some good but mysterious reason.”
 For example, see Cotton Mather, Wonders, 48.
 This is a controversial statement. Many, including Puritans, may have argued that we have no free will. But this seems to fly in the face of reason.
 I encourage the readers to think about and to discuss this issue in greater detail in order to figure out the truth.
 It is important to remember that this is a work of fiction. Thomas Moore was not a civil libertarian and he supported the persecution of religious dissenters. He had the bad luck to become a religious dissenter after the winds of change blew through England.
 Robert Bolt, A Man for all Seasons (Heinemann, 1996), preview available at http://books.google.com, 39.
 A comparison to the War on Drugs and how that has eroded our Constitution is apt as well and worthy of further discussion by the readers of this book.
 Civil rights have declined under the Obama regime, despite the hope that things would improve.
 See, for example, Jane Mayer, “Outsourcing Torture The secret history of America’s ‘extraordinary rendition’ program,” The New Yorker, February 14, 2005, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/02/14/050214fa_fact6.
 Caroline Fredrickson and Christopher E. Anders, “ACLU Letter to the Senate Armed Forces Committee Urging Strong Questioning of Attorney General Gonzales and Deputy Defense Secretary Gordon England Regarding Detainees,” ACLU, July 31, 2006, .
 See, for example, Andrew C. McCarthy, “De-Commissioned Will Pentagon blunders mean the end of military trials for terrorists?” National Review Online, May 19, 2008, http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=OWM3YjAwNmQ2YWNjY2U3Njc5YmRjMTVhOGU2MWU0NGQ=&w=MA==. “We are talking only about terrorists we already know are terrorists.”
 See Matthew L. Levine, “When Breaching Terms of Service Is a Crime,” New York Law Journal, March 20, 2009, http://www.law.com/jsp/legaltechnology/pubArticleLT.jsp?id=1202429211620. Or just do an internet search of “Lori Drew” for additional information.
 For example, see Jon Healey, “More thoughts on the Lori Drew case,” Los Angeles Times, December 4, 2008, http://opinion.latimes.com/opinionla/2008/12/lori-drew-myspa.html. “A jury in Los Angeles recently found her guilty of violating a federal law against computer hacking (the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act), and we opined that the charges never should have been filed. Readers who didn’t like (OK, despised would be more precise) the piece, which essentially called for the judge to throw out the guilty verdict, made a “by any means necessary” argument that went something like this: any adult who torments a vulnerable child through the Internet should be punished, regardless of the legal niceties.”
 Time will judge this statement. But one would be hard pressed to find a legal scholar who agreed with the verdict or who disagreed with the judge when he tossed the case.
 Such an award doesn’t exist, but should. Although guilty persons were executed at Salem, others were convicted on flimsy and sometimes simply spectral evidence. Those convictions were not sound and but for public outrage over witchcraft would never have been rendered.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 148. It is impossible to know this for sure. There were no public opinion polls. But the clear historical consensus is that the trials were not driven by the clergy, but rather by public opinion. As was pointed out previously (note 335) all of the judges of the witch court were elected the next year to the Governor’s Council.
 Ibid, 157 – 158. Much of Hansen’s book actually documents statements made by the clergy in North America at the time that were critical of the trials at Salem and the type of evidence that was used there.
 Increase Mather, Cases, as reprinted in Wonders, 255. Mather wrote “This then I declare and testifie, that to take away the life of any one, meerly because a Spectre or Devil, in a bewitched or possessed Person does accuse them, will bring the Guilt of innocent Blood on the Land, where such a thing shall be done: Mercy forbid that it should, (and I trust that as it has not it never be so) in New-England.” Either Mather was willfully blinding himself to the what was happening at Salem, or he was merely trying to be polite to the court by not alleging that it had taken innocent blood. I suspect the latter. There would have been no reason for him to give this impassioned warning unless he really did believe that the court was convicting on the basis of spectral evidence alone and innocent people had been put to death.
 Ibid, 283.
 For example, see Rosenthal, Salem Story, 194.
 Ibid, 192 – 195.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 205.
 Ibid, 205 – 207.
 Hale, A Modest Inquiry.
 Calef, More Wonders, 285 – 286.
 Burr, ed., Narratives, 386 – 387.
 Wm. Thaddeus Harris, transc., Salem Village Church Record Book.
 Rosenthal, Salem Story, 91.
 Ibid, 177.
 Hansen, Witchcraft, 216.
 Ibid, 217 – 219.
 Cotton Mather, Wonders, 138.
 For example, see Ibid, 141. “Bernard Peache testifi’d, That being in Bed, on the Lord’s-day Night, he heard a scrabbling at the Window, whereat he then saw Susanna Martin come in, and jump down upon the Floor. She took hold of this Deponent’s Feet, and drawing his Body up into an Heap, she lay upon him near Two Hours; in all which time he could neither speak nor stir.”
 Ibid, 138 – 148.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 2, under Case 42 Alice Parker Executed, September 22, 1692.
 Boyer and Nissenbaum, eds., The Salem Witchcraft Papers vol 3, under Case 7 Margaret Scott Executed, September 22, 1692.